Global Cholera Market Outlook: Ken Research

Cholera is an acute epidemic infectious disease characterized by watery diarrhea, extreme loss of fluid and electrolytes coupled with severe dehydration. It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera which contaminates water and food. According to the study, ‘Cholera – Pipeline Review, H2 2018’, each year cholera affects double the number of people that typhoid affects. Cholera is easy to treat yet it claims a significant number of lives each year.
Since the disease is caused by the contamination of water and food, it appears that regions around the world that do not have a strong hygienic base constitute the core of the disease. In this respect Africa has garnered attention. The worldwide cases reported to the WHO in 2016 seem to be aligned with these expectations. A total of thirty-eight countries reported cholera cases out of which seventeen were from Africa and twelve from Asia along with four each from Europe and the Americas. Only one country from Oceania reported cholera cases. Further, more than half of the total number of cases were reported from Africa, nearly one-third from Hispaniola and more than one-tenth from Asia. Haiti, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen, Somalia and the United Republic of Tanzania have been recognized as the most severely affected when it comes to cholera.
Many other nations especially from Africa such as Ghana and Tanzania have begun revolutionizing the distribution of clean water in the country. The authorities of these countries have also started spreading awareness and warning the general public about the harmful capacity of cholera. Both these nations have previously been hit by cholera epidemics and have now been focusing on vaccinesto combat cholera. Haiti too is expressing its concern regarding the same.
It is usually severe dehydration that leads to death from cholera so the most important treatment is to give oral hydration solution (ORS). The mixture consists of large volumes of water mixed with a blend of sugar and salts. Packaged mixtures are commercially available in the market but widespread distribution in developing countries is hindered by cost factors, so homemade ORS recipes are often used with household ingredients. Severe cases require IV fluid. Antibiotics are also used but not recommended due to the rising concern for bacterial resistance. There are currently three cholera vaccines recommended by WHO and are Dukoral, Shanchol and Euvichol.
Recent studies done by the WHO reveal lots of interesting facts about ORS and its effects. The WHO carried out an analysis to deal with widespread cholera. They observed that the lethalness of the disease lies in its ability to kill healthy adults within hours. Cholera has to be treated promptly and timely as this can significantly reduce mortality. Its treatment should consist of prompt rehydration of patients with ORS in certain mild to moderate cases. ORS has been found to be extremely effective especially in epidemics. Research reveals that it cannot influence the infectious process but corrects dehydration and thus, saves lives. Numerous experiences with ORS have shown that it can be given by nonmedical personnel. The critical state in cholera is that of dehydration and thus, WHO recommends that ORS therapy should be initiated immediately even before reaching proper medical establishments.
The recent awareness about the lethalness of cholera has been brought out by the findings of the WHO which claim that dehydration is the main killer and not the infection itself. The importance of ORS is being realized and supplementary measures are being promoted in nations that have recently been plagued by epidemics of cholera. The sanitation and hygiene spectra of global regions brings out the fact that until there is proper sanitation, diseases such as cholera will persist in parts of the world that do not fare well in this respect for instance, Africa.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications