During embryonic development, apoptosis counteracts proliferation by removing unnecessary cells to ensure normal organogenesis. In adults, apoptosis is primarily significant in counteracting unrestricted (i.e., tumor) proliferation and the cyclic involution of many endocrine-dependent tissues. Apoptosis is distinguished from necrosis by (1) the occurrence of characteristic and specific morphological changes and (2) the need for energy synthesis and protein synthesis in dying apoptotic cells to regulate specific genetic and biochemical pathways.

The morphology of apoptosis involves changes within the nucleus, within specific organelles (most notably mitochondria), and within the plasma membrane. In what was once considered a hallmark of apoptosis, the chromatin coalesces within the nucleus as DNA is first degraded into large 30-50 kb fragments and then into smaller ribosomal fragments of 180 to 200 bp. However, these nuclear alterations are not necessary for apoptosis, as their inhibition fails to prevent cell death.

The rapid time course of the apoptotic process, i.e., completion within a few hours, makes it difficult to identify large numbers of apoptotic cells at any given time. Moreover, this problem is further complicated in vivo, as the rate of apoptosis in vivo may be even slower than under experimental conditions in vitro, and the close proximity of phagocytes within normal tissues facilitates the rapid clearance of apoptotic cells.

Apoptosis is an important component of a variety of processes, and inappropriate apoptosis has been associated with a number of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic injury, autoimmune diseases, and many types of cancer. Therefore, a better understanding of apoptosis is needed to facilitate basic research and medical development.

As a trusted CRO, CD BioSciences now provides comprehensive solutions covering all aspects of life science research, including the apoptotic cell death, ranging from Regulator Identification, Regulator Characterization, Mechanism Study, Phenotype Analysis, to Cell Death Characterization.

Regulator Identification identifies gene regulators participating in certain cell death signaling pathways.
Regulator Characterization studies the molecular function of certain regulators in cell death signaling pathways.
Mechanism Study investigates the mechanism of certain regulators.
Animal Model Generation produces genetically engineered animal models for research use.
Chemical Screening screens inhibitors or activators of certain types of cell death.

CD BioSciences is dedicated to assisting life science researchers focusing on cell death studies. For customers interested in more information regarding cell death solutions or other signaling pathways, please visit CD BioSciences at https://www.cd-biosciences.com/.

* For Research Use Only. Not for therapeutic or diagnostic applications.

About CD BioSciences
CD BioSciences is a trusted research product supplier and CRO based in New York. With high-quality reagents and comprehensive services, CD BioSciences is a one-stop shop devoted to advancing signaling pathway studies for researchers. The company is committed to fulfilling all demands in the research of signaling pathways and provides high-quality reagents and comprehensive solutions to support innovative discoveries.