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Connexins (Cxs) are a family of transmembrane proteins, the basic subunit of gap junctions that mediate the communication between cells. They play important roles in cell homeostasis. The intercellular communication is necessary for managing various processes of the human body, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and wound healing. Studies also demonstrate a role of connexins in the regulation of tissue homeostasis that occurs independently of their channel activities. This is shown in the context of cell growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and signaling.

Thus far, there are 21 different types of connexins which are known to exist in humans and 20 types in mice. While some Cxs are expressed ubiquitously, the expression of other Cxs is tissue specific, which suggests that gap junctional channels composed of each type of Cxs play specific roles. Their abnormal expression and function are associated with human hereditary diseases. Mounting evidence indicates that mutations or loss of functional channels are implicated in many diseases and disorders such as congenital deafness, skin disorders, and cancers. Connexin mutations have been identified to be related to X-linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, and congenital cataracts. In tumorigenesis, connexins were observed to have both anti-tumorigenic and pro-tumorigenic roles in a context- and stage-dependent manner.

According to sequence similarities at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, the gap junction proteins are divided into two categories, alpha and beta. Connexin32 (Cx32; also known as GJB1) is a transmembrane beta-1 protein. More than 160 mutations of Cx32 have been found, some of which lead to complete loss of functional channels, others form functional channels with abnormalities in channel behavior.

Product name Catalog number
Connexin 32 605-650
Connexin 32 604-800
Connexin 36 605-660
Connexin 43 500-2744
Connexin 43 (pS368) 602-960
Connexin 7 604-290

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