75 Ramsar Sites in 75th Year of Independence

 India adds 11 more wetlands to the list of Ramsar sites to make total 75 Ramsar sites covering an area of 13,26,677 ha in the country in the 75th year of Independence.  

The 11 new sites include:  Four (4) sites in Tamil Nadu, Three (3) in Odisha, Two (2) in Jammu & Kashmir and One (1) each in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Designation of these sites would help in conservation and management of wetlands and wise use of their resources.  

India is one of the Contracting Parties to Ramsar Convention, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. India signed it on 1st Feb 1982. During 1982 to 2013, a total of 26 sites were added to the list of Ramsar sites, however, during 2014 to 2022, the country has added 49 new wetlands to the list of Ramsar sites.  

During this year itself (2022) a total of 28 sites have been declared as Ramsar sites. Based on the date of designation mentioned on Ramsar Certificate, the number is 19 for this year (2022) and 14 for previous year (2021). 

Tamil Nadu has maximum no. of Ramsar sites (14 nos), followed by UP which has 10 nos. of Ramsar sites.  

Brief of 11 wetlands designated as Ramsar sites


Name of wetland

Area in Ha



Tampara Lake




Hirakud Reservoir



Ansupa Lake



Yashwant Sagar


Madhya Pradesh


Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary


Tamil Nadu


Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex



Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary



Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary



Thane Creek




Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve


Jammu and Kashmir


Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve


Total area of 11 sites


  Year wise designation of 75 Ramsar sites

S. No.

Year of Designation

No of site designated

(As per date of designation)

Sites designated upto 2013


after 2014 to till date

Area covered in Ha





(1981 to 2013)


















(2014 to 2022)
















1.      Tampara Lake:

Tampara Lake is among the most prominent freshwater lakes in the State of Odisha situated in Ganjam district. The depression on the ground gradually filled with rainwater from catchment flow and was called “Tamp” by the British and subsequently termed “Tampra” by the locals.  The wetland supports at least 60 species of birds, 46 species of fishes, at least 48 species of phytoplanktons, and more than seven species of terrestrial plants and macrophytes. The wetland is an important habitat for vulnerable species such as Cyprinus carpio, common pochard (Aythya ferina), and river tern (Sterna aurantia). With an estimated average fish yield of 12 tonnes per year, the wetland is an important source of livelihood for the local communities. Along with fishes the wetland also provides provisioning services like water for agriculture, and domestic use and is a well-known tourism and recreation site.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31513985/pictures/IMG_0585.JPG           https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31513985/pictures/IMG_0487.JPG

                 Birds above the wetland

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31513985/pictures/IMG_0412.JPG          https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31513985/pictures/IMG_0391.JPG

Wetland surface                                  Adjacent vegetation

2.      Hirakud Reservoir

Hirakud Reservoir, the largest earthen dam in Odisha started operating in 1957. The reservoir to support a range of floral and faunal species, including several of high conservation significance. Out of the known 54 species of fish from the reservoir, one has been classed as being endangered, six near threatened and 21 fish species of economic importance. Fisheries presently yield a catch of around 480 MT of fish annually and is the mainstay of livelihoods of 7,000 fisher households. Similarly, over 130 bird species have been recorded at this site, out of which 20 species are of high conservation significance. The reservoir is a source of water for producing around 300 MW of hydropower and irrigating 436,000 ha of cultural command area. The wetland also provides important hydrological services by moderating floods in the Mahanadi delta, the ecological and socio-economic hub of the east coast of India. Hirakud reservoir supports abundant tourism, and forms an integral part of the high touristic value sites located around Sambalpur with over 30,000 tourists annually visiting the site.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31485724/pictures/thumbnail/Hirakud%20Dam.jpg      Migratory birds arrive at Hirakud dam reservoir in Odisha as winter sets  in- The New Indian Express

    Hirakud Reservoir                                                               Migratory Birds

Annual bird census starts at Hirakud Dam, today - Sun Star TV         https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31485724/pictures/Hirakud.JPG

Waterbirds  _ Hirakud Reservoir                                         Landscape

3.      Ansupa Lake 

Ansupa Lake is the largest freshwater lake of Odisha situated in Banki sub-division of Cuttack district and has its fame from time immemorial for its scenic beauty, biodiversity, and natural resources. The wetland is an oxbow lake formed by River Mahanadi and is spread over an area of 231 ha. The wetland is home to at least 194 species of birds, 61 species of fishes and 26 species of mammals in addition to 244 species of macrophytes. The wetland provides a safe habitat to at least three threatened bird species- Rynchops albicollis (EN), Sterna acuticauda (EN) and Sterna aurantia (VU) and three threatened fish species- Clarias magur (Clariidae) (EN), Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) (VU) and Wallago attu (VU). Ansupa lake sustains the freshwater demands of the surrounding areas and also supports the livelihood of the local communities through fisheries and agriculture. The wetland has immense recreational and tourism potential as it is a major wintering ground for migratory birds and is also known for its scenic beauty.  

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/31454058/pictures/Ansupa%20lake.jpeg                   Ansupa Lake, the phoenix that rose from its ashes. – East Indian Traveller

     A view of Ansupa Lake                                                  A view of Ansupa Lake

Winter delays arrival of guests at Ansupa lake - Telegraph India               Ansupa Lake - tourmet

                                                       Migratory ducks in Ansupa Lake

4.      Yashwant Sagar

Yashwant Sagar is one of the two Important Bird Areas (IBA) in the Indore region as well as one of the most important birding sites in Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh.  Presently it is mainly used for water supply to the city of Indore and is also being used for fish culture on a commercial scale.  Yashwant Sagar reservoir comes under the jurisdiction of Indore City Municipal Corporation. Indore which has bagged the title of one of the cleanest cities in India is also often known as center of economic growth of Madhya Pradesh. The catchment area of this wetland is predominantly agriculture. Yashwant Sagar is considered to be a stronghold of the vulnerable Sarus Crane in central India. The lake backwaters have plenty of shallow areas, conducive for waders and other waterfowl. As the water level recedes, many islands serve as roosting sites for waterfowl. Due to its vast shallow reed beds, the wetland is considered heaven to a large number of winter migratory birds.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/43193015/pictures/DSC_0920.JPG             https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/43193015/pictures/20210929_144318%20-%20Copy.jpg

Heronry birds, Yashwant Sagar                                  Lotus farming, Yashwant Sagar

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/43193015/pictures/DSC_0779.JPG            Yashwant Sagar: A Home To The Vunerable Sarus Crane - India's Endangered

Panoramic view of Yashwant Sagar 

5.      Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary

Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary, locally known as “Chitrangudi Kanmoli” is located in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu. The wetland is a protected area since 1989 and declared as Bird Sanctuary, coming under the jurisdiction of Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Ramanathapuram division. Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary is an ideal habitat for winter migratory birds. Around 50 birds belonging to 30 families have been reported from the site.  Out of these 47 are water birds and 3 terrestrial birds. Notable waterbirds spotted from the site area spot-billed pelican, little egret, grey heron, large egret, open billed stork, purple, and pond herons.  Chitrangudi is surrounded by agricultural fields, where different crops are grown throughout the year. The wetland also supports a number of fishes, amphibians, molluscs, aquatic insects, and their larvae forming good food sources for arriving waterbirds. Groundwater is extracted for irrigation around and within the wetland for agricultural purposes.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4317226/pictures/1.png         https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4317226/pictures/2.png

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4317226/pictures/3.png    Image result for Chitrangudi Bird WLS

                                                                                    Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary

6.      Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex

Suchindrum Theroor Wetland complex is part of the Suchindrum-Theroor Manakudi Conservation Reserve. It is declared an Important Bird Area and lies at the southern tip of the Central Asian flyway of migratory birds.  It was formed for birds’ nesting purposes and it attracts thousands of birds every year. The total population dependent upon Theroor is about 10,500 and 75% of the population’s livelihood hinges on agriculture which in turn is dependent upon the water released from the Theroor tank. This is a man-made, inland Tank and is perennial. Copper plate inscriptions from the 9th century mention Pasumkulam, Venchikulam, Nedumarthukulam, Perumkulam, Elemchikulam and Konadunkulam. Around 250 species of birds have been recorded in the area, of which 53 are migratory, 12 endemic, and 4 threatened.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42284033/pictures/Suchindram-Theroor-photo.jpg   https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42284033/pictures/Indian%20cormorant%20in%20%20Samithopu.JPG

         Landscape of Suchindram Tank                                    Indian Cormorant

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42284033/pictures/Heronary%20in%20Samithopu.JPG      https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42284033/pictures/spot%20billed%20duck%20in%20Theroor.JPG

             Heronry in Suchindram Theroor                                     Spot-billed Duck

7.      Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary

Vaduvur bird sanctuary spreads over an area of 112.638 ha, is a large human-made irrigation tank and shelter for migratory birds as it provides a suitable environment for food, shelter, and breeding ground. While these irrigation tanks have socio-economic and cultural significance, very little is known of their ecological importance. These tanks have the potential to harbor good populations of resident and wintering water birds but no studies have been done to confirm this. Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii occurred in most of the surveyed tanks. Large concentrations of wintering waterfowl such as Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Garganey Anas querquedula were recorded in tanks. Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary has a diverse habitat including a number of inlets and surrounding irrigated agricultural fields which provides good nesting and foraging habitats for birds. Thus, the site provides support to the species listed above during critical stages of their life-cycle.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42323268/pictures/Vaduvur%201.jpg        https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42323268/pictures/Black%20headed%20Ibis.jpeg 

Panoramic View of Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary               Black headed Ibis nest

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42323268/pictures/Vaduvur%204.jpg      https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42323268/pictures/Vaduvur%203.jpg

Nesting Site                                                                Panoramic view of the sanctuary

8.      Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary

Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary is a Protected area near Mudukulathur Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu. India, declared in 1989. It is notable as a nesting site for several migratory heron species that roost in the prominent growth of babul trees there. The breeding population of migratory waterbirds arrive here between October and February and include: painted stork, white ibis, black ibis, little egret, great egret. The site qualifies as an IBA as the threatened Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis breeds here.  The wetland exhibits rich biodiversity including many globally near-threatened species like Spot-billed Pelican, Oriental Darter, Oriental white Ibis and Painted Stork and also commonly occurring shore and water birds like greenshank, plovers, stilts and forest birds like bee-eaters, bulbuls, cuckoos, starlings, barbets, etc. They act as breeding, nesting, roosting, foraging, and stopover sites for the birdsThe wetland supports IUCN RedList vulnerable avian species like Sterna aurantia (River Tern).

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42471326/pictures/Black%20winged%20stilt.jpg   https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42471326/pictures/black%20ibis.jpg

Black winged stilt                                                        Black Ibis

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42471326/pictures/spot%20billed%20pelican%20seen%20nesting.jpg         Tamilnadu Tourism: Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary, Ramanathapuram

Spot-billed pelican nesting site                                 Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary

9.      Thane Creek

Thane Creek is located in Maharashtra, India. There are several sources of fresh water to the creek, of which Ulhas River is the largest, followed by many drainage channels from various suburban areas of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai & Thane. It has been declared as Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary. Thane creek is fringed by mangroves on both banks & comprises around 20% of the total Indian mangrove species. The mangrove forest acts as a natural shelter belt & protects the land from cyclones, tidal surges, seawater seepage & intrusions. The mangrove serves as a nursery for several fishes & sustains the local fishery. The area is an important part of the wetland complex of the Central Asian Flyway of the birds and has been categorized as an Important Bird Area (IBA). Other than 202 avifaunal species, the creek also houses 18 species of fishes, crustaceans & molluscs, 59 species of butterflies, 67 species of Insects, and 35 species of phytoplankton, and 24 species of zooplankton & 23 species of Benthos. 

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4831683/pictures/Lesser%20Flamingo%2004-02-2021%20(6).JPG        https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4831683/pictures/Lesser%20Flamingo-%20December%202021.JPG

             congregation of Lesser flamingos                                        Closeup view

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4831683/pictures/Mangroves%2019-06-2021%20(3).JPG     https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/4831683/pictures/WhatsApp%20Image%202022-04-05%20at%202.09.52%20PM.jpeg 

              Mangroves of Thane creek                                            Flamingoes in Thane creek

10.  Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve

Hygam Wetland falls within the River Jhelum basin and plays a significant role as a flood absorption basin, biodiversity conservation site, eco-tourism site, and livelihood security for the local communities. The wetland is located in the Baramulla district. It serves as an abode to many residents and migratory bird species. It is also recognized as an Important Bird Area (IBA). Consequent to the high rate of siltation, Hygam Wetland has lost its wetland characteristics to a large extent and in many places changed its profile into a landmass. This has resulted in further loss of habitat conditions to offer a suitable site for visiting migratory birds (Winter/ Summer migrants) and for resident birds as well. Hygam Wetland provides a plethora of ecosystem services, these include fish and fiber, water supply, water purification, climate regulation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The livelihoods of people living in, and adjoining the fringes of wetlands depend partially or entirely on wetland ecosystem services.

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42191262/pictures/hygam2.JPG              https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42191262/pictures/IMG_5045.JPG 

Photograph of the flood basin                       Migratory Waterfowl congregation at Hygam wetland

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42191262/pictures/WhatsApp%20Image%202022-02-04%20at%207.38.46%20PM%20(2).jpeg             https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42191262/pictures/WhatsApp%20Image%202022-02-04%20at%207.38.40%20PM%20(1).jpeg

Photograph of the flood basin.                       Photograph of the wetland channel.

11.  Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve

Shallabug Wetland Conservation Reserve is located in the District Srinagar, UT of J&K. Large areas of the wetland dry up between September and March. The area has extensive reedbeds of Phragmites communis and Typha angustata, and rich growth of Nymphaea candida and N. stellata on open water. It serves as an abode to more than four lakh resident and migratory birds of at least 21 species. Shallabugh Wetland plays a major role in the natural control, amelioration or prevention of flooding, It is also important for seasonal water retention for wetlands or other areas of conservation importance downstream. The wetland is important for the recharge of aquifers. A major natural floodplain system. Shallabugh Wetland provides plethora of ecosystem services, these include fish and fiber, water supply, water purification, climate regulation, flood regulation, recreational opportunities. The wetland serves as an important breeding ground for many species of waterbirds

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42203940/pictures/IMG_0076.JPG       https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42203940/pictures/IMG_0083.JPG

                                                                       Pics of Shallabugh Wetland

https://rsis.ramsar.org/RISapp/files/42203940/pictures/IMG_0162.JPG   One of the largest wetland known as Shallabug wetland in District Ganderbal  is not set to receive migratory birds which usually happens every year. –  Kashmir Thunder

                                                           Panoramic view of Shallabugh Wetland



Best Advertising Web Sites to be Named by Web Marketing Association in 26th Annual WebAward Competition

 The Web Marketing Association is looking for the best advertising Websites in the world as part of their 26th annual international WebAward Competition for Web site development at the WebAward Web site. The WebAwards is the standards-defining competition that sets benchmarks for 96 industries, including advertising, design and marketing web sites, based on the seven criteria of a successful Web site. The deadline for advertising web sites to enter to be judged is May 31, 2022.

“The advertising industry is very competitive when it comes to Web development and companies can benefit from the independent evaluation of their online efforts,” said William Rice, President of the Web Marketing Association. “Advertising websites need to balance their wish to show off creativity and capability via their web design with the equally important need to inform prospects and clients.” Increasingly awards have been added to new business pitches to demonstrate third party validation of skills and to increase creative credibility to prospective clients.

All advertising entrants benefit from receiving valuable feedback in terms of their specific scores compared against the average scores for their industry. They also may receive specific comments from the WebAward’s professional judging panel on their Web site development efforts.

Winners of a WebAward in the advertising and marketing categories will also receive:

· Handsome statue or certificate of achievement

· Increased visibility for their company

· Marketing opportunity to promote the company website to the media

· Links to your site from the highly ranked WebAward site to help SEO

· A highlight for your resume.

· Admiration of peers, friends and co-workers

Each year the Web Marketing Association names the Best Advertising Website and Best Marketing Website based on the scores submitted by the competition judges.

Recent winners of the Best Advertising Web Site include:

2020 – Independent Creative Agency for &UGO

2019 – Mightily for Mightily Website

2018 – IQ Agency for IQ Agency Website

2017 – Patients & Purpose for Patients & Purpose Website

2016 – TMP Worldwide for TMP Worldwide Website

2015 – MediaMath for Marketing’s Big Moment

2014 – The Engine is Red for The Engine is Red Website

2013 – LIQWID for LIQWID

2012 – Venables Bell & Partners for Slim Jim’s Center for Spice Loss

2011 – Corey McPherson Nash for Corey McPherson Nash Website

2010 – Metia for Mass Effect 2 Silverlight Campaign

2009 – Red Square Agency for the Red Square Agency Website

2008 – Sharpe Partners for the Burns Group Website.

2007 – SpotRunner for SpotRunner Website

2006 – SpotRunner for SpotRunner Website

2005 – Young & Rubicam Brands/Wunderman, Detroit for Meet the Lucky Ones

2004 – Hanon McKendry/The Brand Consultants for Lake Effect Website

2004 – Oasis for Toyota Scion

2003 – Google for Google AdWords

2002 – Fusebox, Inc for JCDecaux Airport US

Recent winners of the Best Design Web site include:

2021 – Rare Bird, Inc. for MAYER FABRICS

2020 – Logitech for START A FOLLOWING

2019 – Ideas On Purpose for Ideas On Purpose Website

2018 – Websolute S.p.A. for Giorgetti

2017 – One Mark for One Mark Website

2016 – Torchbox for Museum of London

2014 – Ideas On Purpose for United Technologies Corporation Web Site

2013 – SapientNitro for Palms.com Redesign

2012 – Valtech for Normann Copenhagen

2011 – Activeark for Marimekko.com

2010 – H2O Associates for Tom Hoch Design Web site

2009 – Tribal DDB Worldwide for Warehouse 13

2008 – Azavar Technologies for Justyna Collections Catalog

2007 – Walt Disney Internet Group for Disney.com / Disney XD

2006 – Publicis Net for Experience Wonder You

2005 – R/GA for Nokia Nseries Sitelet

2004 – Gigapixel Creative for Gigapixel Creative, Inc.

2003 – Arnold Worldwide for The Touareg

2002 – PriceWeber, Inc. for Canadian Mist web site

Recent winners of the Best Marketing Web site include:

2021 – VIA Studio for VIA STUDIO WEBSITE

2020 – Web Marketing & Design, Lenovo for LENOVO THINKPAD X1 FOLD

2019 – 90 Degree Design for 90 Degree Design Website

2018 – mStoner, Inc.for mStoner, Inc. Website Redesign

2017 – Pico Group for Total Brand Activation

2016 – Ferrero-Tic Tac for Tic Tac Minions Sweepstakes Website

2014 – R2integrated for R2integrated Website

2013 – WebbMason for Rebranding for Interactive Success: WebbMason

2012 – UrbanDaddy for UrbanDaddy + Herradura Mixology Battle Royale (which also won Best of Show 2012)

2011 – IQ for The Wizarding World of Harry Potter

2010 – Physicians Interactive for Physicians Interactive Corporate Website

2009 – Arc Worldwide for Leo Burnett’s Big Black Pencil Goes Global

2008 – TYS Creative for Ensemble HD Home Cinema System by Epson

2007 – Hanson Dodge Lime for Product Launch

2006 – Rare Method for Silvertip Resort

2005 – Nurun | Ant Farm for Nurun | Ant Farm Interactive Website Interactive

2004 – Vérité, Inc. for Symantec Client Security 2.0 Channel Launch Kit

2003 – Zugara for The Getaway

2002 – Disc Marketing, Inc. for Disc Marketing Corporate Website

Advertising and Marketing Websites can be entered into consideration for the 2022 Best Advertising Website and other related WebAwards at the WebAward Website.

The 2022 WebAwards are sponsored by the following leading organizations: PR.com, iContact, and Webmaster Radio. The Web Marketing Association thanks these companies for their commitment to the entire online marketing community.

About the WebAwards

The Web Marketing Association was founded in 1997 to help define the standard of excellence for online marketing. Our internationally known award programs, such as WebAward Competition for Website Development, Internet Advertising Competition and the MobileWebAwards, recognize the people and organizations responsible for developing the most effective online marketing programs on the Internet today. Entrants benefit from assessment of their marketing efforts by a professional judging panel and the marketing opportunities presented by being recognized as an award-winning web developer.

Web Marketing Association

William Rice





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