First data taken by the 3.6-meter telescope detects unexpected kilonova emission from ‘a long-duration gamma-ray burst’

While tracing a burst of high-energy light detected on December 11, 2021, from the outskirts of the Milky Way located approximately 1 billion light-years away, astronomers have spotted the first astronomical event in which a long GRB has been accompanied by the unexpected discovery of a kilonova emission. Generally, kilonova are visible and infrared light associated with short-period gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) thought to be heat produced by the radioactive decay of heavier elements.

Photometric observations taken with the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope have provided vital information on the earliest phase of a kilonova ever detected, radically changing the understanding of scientists about the origin of GRBs.

GRBs are powerful astronomical cosmic bursts of high-energy gamma-ray. GRB emits more energy in a few seconds than our Sun will emit in its lifetime and has two distinct emission phases: the short-lived prompt emission (the initial burst phase that emits gamma-rays), followed by a long-lived multi-wavelength afterglow phase. The prompt emission (initial gamma-ray emission) of GRBs are automatically discovered by space-based gamma-ray missions such as NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, and India’s AstroSat. In recent years, scientists have discovered a special phenomenon called a kilonova of visible and infrared light with short-period GRBs, also known as a potential source of gravitational waves. It has been hypnotized that the heat produced by the radioactive decay of heavier elements may emit kilonova. This process also produces heavier elements, such as gold and platinum. However, observing kilonovas at near-infrared wavelengths is technically challenging, and only a few telescopes on Earth, including the 3.6-meter Devasthal Optical Telescope of the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), can detect kilonova and gravitational wave objects at these wavelengths upto faint limits.

The scientists from the ARIES, an autonomous institute of DST, used data from the  3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope of the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) along with other telescopes, including HST in studying the aftermath of the long GRB (GRB 211211A), detected by the NASA’s Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on December 11, 2021. The high-energy outburst lasted about a minute, and follow-up observations taken from the 3.6-meter Devasthal Optical Telescope identified a kilonova.

The spectral energy distribution of GRB afterglow is usually explained in terms of non-thermal emission (due to synchrotron radiation). However, in this event, both thermal and non-thermal emissions were included in the spectral energy distribution of the afterglow, modeled using the magnificent and dim observations of the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope. After subtracting the afterglow contribution from the collected data taken using the 3.6 m telescope and 4Kx4K CCD IMAGER, the scientists, which include PI of the backend instrument Dr. Shashi Bhushan Pandey along with research students Rahul Gupta, Amar Aryan, Amit Kumar, and Dr. Kuntal Mishra found that the multiwavelength data could be well explained by additional thermal spectra and that this thermal emission could be explained in terms of kilonova emission.

“Several years ago, Neil Gehrels, an astrophysicist and namesake of Swift suggested that some long-duration GRBs may be produced by merging neutron stars. By GRB standards, this event was relatively nearby, allowing space and ground-based telescopes to capture the dim light of the kilonova. Kilonovae may also arise from more distant long GRBs, but we have not yet been able to see them through observations,” said Eleonora Troja, an astrophysicist at the University of Rome who led the team on the study.

 Dr. Shashi Bhushan Pandey and the team of Indian scientists involved in this work said that this discovery challenges our current understanding about the origin of GRBs and gives rise to new possibilities in this area of research. Professor Dipankar Banerjee, Director, ARIES, pointed out that future time-domain astronomy has a unique potential to make a lot of such discoveries using the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope.

In addition to the first data taken by the 3.6-meter telescope, this scientific discovery, published in the journal Nature, also used Hubble Space Telescope, Multicolor Imaging Telescopes for Survey and Monstrous Explosions, Color Alto Observatory, Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope, and many other spaces and ground-based telescopes. It will help in understanding the process of formation of heavy elements in the universe.

Publication Link:

For more details, please contact Dr. Shashi Bhushan Pandey,, mobile 9557470888.



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AT&T and Smart Meter Improve Remote Patient Monitoring

Smart Meter Remote Patient Monitoring Powered by AT&T IoT Connectivity Helps Improve Outcomes for Patients with Chronic Conditions

Smart Meter IoT Devices in Remote Care Programs Dramatically Improve Health in 84% of Diabetes Patients and 88% of Hypertension Patients

First-in-Class Smart Meter Cellular Pulse Oximeter to Debut at CES 2022


What’s the news? AT&T* is teaming up with Smart Meter to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure. Smart Meter supplies healthcare providers with cellular remote patient monitoring (RPM) devices and services, including the SmartRPM™ solution, iGlucose®, iBloodPressure 2.0™, iScale™ and soon, the iPulseOx™, being unveiled at CES 2022 in Las Vegas. These devices run on AT&T’s nationwide IoT network, known for its reliability and coverage.

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the U.S., and they’re on the rise. Hypertension can lead to 2 of the biggest killers in this country – heart disease and stroke – while diabetes ranks 7th for deaths. But studies show remote patient monitoring can help change this. For example, 84% of diabetes and 88%1 of hypertension patients at highest risk for severe disease complications experienced significant improvements in their health when using the Smart Meter iGlucose and iBloodPressure as part of RPM programs.

Why is this important? Consistent use is a must for an effective RPM program. So, the simpler the solution, the more likely the patient will use it. Smart Meter’s cellular-enabled devices simplify RPM. They are an easy out-of-the-box solution; just insert the included batteries and press the start button. The monitoring devices contain IoT SIM cards, so they automatically send the patient’s data over the AT&T IoT network to the SmartRPM cloud. The healthcare provider then accesses the data there via secure log-in.

Unlike cellular-enabled RPM devices, Bluetooth-enabled monitoring devices require the user to pair the device with a smartphone or tablet, download the data, and then send it to the doctor. It’s a more complicated solution that oftentimes involves troubleshooting. This can be intimidating and frustrating for users and can lead to them not continuing with the RPM program. Cellular RPM devices help lessen the technological divide and are more accessible to patients of all ages, regardless of digital literacy and access to connectivity.

What are the benefits?

For patients, Smart Meter’s cellular RPM devices mean easy access to improved healthcare with the peace of mind that comes from frequent assurances and support. For health care providers, the benefits include ready access to more complete patient data and the ability to act on it in near real-time, while automatic record keeping meets requirements for reimbursement.

Because of these benefits, a growing number of doctors are embracing RPM. A recent survey found 43% of clinicians believe RPM adoption will be on par with in-patient monitoring in 5 years.

What are people saying? [/b”The iGlucose solution proved to be an outstanding resource for my clinical team to enable greater insights into our patients’ results between visits. More than 70% of participants required some form of intervention prior to their next in-office visit, and as a result, there was a reduction in emergency room visits and need for hospitalizations, demonstrating better overall diabetes care.” – [b]Dr. Gail L. Nunlee-Bland, MD, Howard University Diabetes Treatment Center

“Our collaboration with Smart Meter is another example of how our IoT connectivity is advancing connected healthcare. IoT-enabled devices ultimately provide a quicker and more convenient patient service with better outcomes for both the patient and the healthcare provider.” – Joe Drygas, VP of AT&T Healthcare Industry Solutions

“As an early RPM innovator, Smart Meter has done extensive work to drive the best outcomes by improving patient engagement and adherence, and our cellular alliance with AT&T has been a large part of our success.” – Casey Pittock, Smart Meter CEO

1 Based on Smart Meter data on file. 

*About AT&T Communications

We help family, friends and neighbors connect in meaningful ways every day. From the first phone call 140+ years ago to mobile video streaming, we @ATT innovate to improve lives. AT&T Communications is part of AT&T Inc. (NYSE:T). For more information, please visit us at

About Smart Meter, LLC

Smart Meter is the leading supplier of cellular-enabled virtual care technologies including the iGlucose®, iBloodPressure™, iScale™, iPulseOx™, and the SmartRPM™ cloud platform. Smart Meter’s remote patient monitoring solutions are recognized as the standard for the RPM industry and are regarded for their high patient retention and satisfaction. The unique combination of reliable health data, patient-friendly devices, and platform integrations enable and enhance RPM, Chronic Care Management (CCM), Employee Wellness, Population Health, and Telehealth programs for more than 300 RPM distribution partners across the United States. For more information, visit

GreenBond Meter Coin: The Coin Backed by Natural Capital that Seeks to Reduce the Carbon Footprint

Tallinn, Estonia – The GreenBond Meter initiative arises from the strategic alliance of two companies, Heimdall Technologies OÜ (Estonia), Nideport S.A. (Uruguay) which already have an interdisciplinary team made up of more than 50 people from different countries, experts in technology and finance and other specialties.

This joint venture extends to the financial market, an unprecedented disruptive solution for all those who want to invest in cryptocurrencies and contribute to the preservation of the environment.

GBM developed an innovative technological system that allows the user to remotely monitor each parcel of the protected property in the Paraná jungle from their laptop or smartphone. In this way at any place and at any time, it is possible to follow the evolution of the initiative, walking behind its progress.

The project began in Misiones, where 25,000 hectares are already in the recovery process. GBM plans to expand in ten areas on five continents to complete 1 million hectares. The objective of this initiative goes hand in hand with the goals set at the Climate Change Conferences (COPs). Reducing the carbon footprint and reversing global warming is possible by protecting and planting more trees that absorb surplus CO2 in the atmosphere to counteract the greenhouse effect.

GBM’s commitment is not only limited to the environment but also interested in the local community, giving back to the native peoples of this territory the care and respect they deserve. The refinancing of this project will go hand in hand with the development of these communities by improving local conditions and creating new jobs.

The process is simple, each user who acquires a GBM token will be protecting 1m2 of native forests or jungle. The first issue of GBM Coin was launched for sale at the value of US $ 1.09 = 1m2 of virgin land in the Paraná jungle (Misiones, Argentina).

The possession of this cryptocurrency does not imply any real right of ownership, possession or use over the portion of the preserved land, but rather confers the right to demand compliance with its preservation and not exploitation of it.

The difference with other initiatives is that GBM coin is based on real, tangible, measurable and observable financial support, each token has the backing of the Natural Capital of the property.

Every GBM user will be able to monitor their protected portion through the Geographic Information System (GIS) with access to visual material of the protected property, geolocated information, graphics, statistics and more market data to keep up to date of all the news in the financial world.

The acquisition of the crypto asset grants accesses to the preferential exchange of carbon credits (GBM bond) that the property generates.

The first certification of carbon credits will be carried out in 2023 and from that moment, every investor holding cryptocurrencies will be entitled to obtain the equivalent of the square meters associated with their token in carbon credits with important discounts.

Thus, GBM Coin buyers will be the pioneers of a new relationship between human and nature mediated by decentralized finance, transparency and access democracy provided by the blockchain, with traceability as an inviolable certification of that commitment.

GreenBond Meter Coin is the currency of a new world.