Endophthalmitis is an inflammatory of the intraocular fluids occurs usually due to infection by fungi, bacteria or parasites during the perioperative period. During infection, photoreceptor cells of the retina often get damaged. Despite surgical intervention and aggressive therapeutics of endophthalmitis treatment, it often results in partial or complete loss of vision loss. Infection in the vitreous cavity results to serious intraocular inflammatory disorders. Endophthalmitis can be categorized by clinical courses such as acute endophthalmitis and chronic endophthalmitis, by etiology as infectious endophthalmitis and non-infectious endophthalmitis and by the causative agents which involved fungi, bacteria, parasites and rare viruses. The most common form of endophthalmitis is acute postoperative endophthalmitis which occurs within 1-2 weeks shortly after ocular surgery. In endogenous endophthalmitis, fungus, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are the most frequently caused pathogens. However, gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae are mostly responsible for endogenous endophthalmitis cases in East Asia, whereas fungi, gram-positive bacteria are the causative agents that are more prominent in North America and Europe. Endophthalmitis treatment consists of vitrectomy, intravitreal antibiotics, inflammatory drugs and topical therapy.
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In the case of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis, the diagnostic and treatment approach is very less. Generally only sampling of aqueous humor is done by PCR examination and microbiological culture after which oral therapy is prescribed such as clarithromycin or moxifloxacin for 1 week. Both these antibiotics work well into the eyes and found to be effective against biofilm formation. If the previous treatment is not successful, intravitreal antibiotics and vitrectomy with posterior capsulotomy are performed. Antibiotics such as Vancomycin, Ceftazidime is mostly given as the first choice of endophthalmitis treatment and Vancomycin and Amikacin are given as the second choice of endophthalmitis treatment. Despite the low incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections, the high volume usages of these injections has become an increasing factor of infectious exogenous endophthalmitis treatment market. According to NCBI, the incidence rate of post-traumatic endophthalmitis has been accounted to be 0% to 16.5% globally. Advances in new technology, research and surgical procedures are boosting the endophthalmitis treatment market. For e.g. intravitreal liposomal amphotericin B has been reported effective in the Candida endophthalmitis treatment. Nanoparticles coated with daptomycin have been developed as a potential topical therapy for bacterial endophthalmitis treatment but still it has not been reported clinically. Pars plana vitrectomy which is indicated for vitreous biopsy, persistent inflammation or retinal complication is mostly used surgical procedure in endophthalmitis treatment. The combination of intravitreal antifungal agents and PPV is the most widely used method for fungal endophthalmitis treatment. Due to advancement in vitreoretinal technology, early vitrectomy is widely used surgical procedure for removing the pathogen and at the same time it delivers medication into the posterior segment of the eye which is another factor in driving the endophthalmitis treatment market. Poor prognosis in endophthalmitis treatment and less awareness among people about endophthalmitis ophthalmologist may be the restraining factor in endophthalmitis treatment market.
The global endophthalmitis treatment market is segmented on the basis of medication, types and distribution channel.
- Market Segmentation by Medication
- Market Segmentation by Types
- Acute Postoperative
- Chronic Postoperative
- Filtering Bleb-Associated
- After Intravitreal Injections
- Market Segmentation by Distribution channel
- Hospital pharmacies
- Retail pharmacies
- Ophthalmology Clinics
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Geographically, endophthalmitis treatment market is categorized into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is dominating the endophthalmitis treatment market due to the increase in cataract surgical procedure and highly developed technologies that lead to a rise in endophthalmitis treatment market. Europe is also boosting the growth of endophthalmitis treatment market due to an increase in the prevalence of endophthalmitis and usage of intracameral antibiotics in the region. The Asia Pacific is expected to witness fast growth in endophthalmitis treatment market due to the occurrence of ocular trauma leading to increase in pediatric endophthalmitis treatment and also the rising number of microorganisms which tends to cause the disease is influencing the endophthalmitis treatment market. The Middle East and Africa have a slow growth endophthalmitis treatment market due to low adoption of medications endophthalmitis treatment and also fewer government initiatives and awareness among people about endophthalmitis.
Examples of some of the market participants in the global endophthalmitis treatment market identified across the value chain include:
- Celerity Pharmaceuticals
- F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd
- GlaxoSmithKline plc
- Santen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
- Jina Pharma
- Bayer AG
- Merck Sharp
- Dohme Corp.
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