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As in the case of brands, geographical designations of origin can be protected as well. It is therefore also possible for advertising featuring references to origin to be misleading to consumers and thus impermissible.

Brands and geographical designations of origin are of great value to businesses. They give rise to certain associations among consumers, e.g. in relation to the quality of a product. We at the commercial law firm GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte note that for this reason the protection of brands and designations of origin is all the more important.

Having said that, a ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) from December 20, 2017 demonstrates that the protection afforded to designations of origin can have its limits (Az.: C-393/16). The case before the CJEU concerned a legal dispute between a discount supermarket and an association of champagne producers. The discount supermarket offered ice cream under the name “Champagner Sorbet” (champagne sorbet). The association brought a legal action against this, arguing that it constituted a violation of the protected designation of origin (PDO) “champagne”.

The case ended up before the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH), Germany”s Federal Supreme Court, which in turn requested that the CJEU interpret EU legislation pertaining to the protection of registered designations of origin.

The CJEU held that a protected designation of origin has been exploited improperly if the intention behind using the designation is to unduly benefit from its reputation. According to the Court, the designation “Champagner Sorbet” was able to benefit from the prestige of the protected designation of origin “champagne” because consumers associate the latter with a certain class of goods and price range. Notwithstanding this, use of the designation was said not to be illegal if an essential quality of the product is its predominantly champagne flavour, a matter which the CJEU concluded was for the BGH to address.

However, unlawful use might have occurred in the case of a sorbet that, despite the impression given by references in its design or outer packaging, does not include a champagne flavour as one of its essential qualities. References of this kind could be deemed incorrect and misleading. The Court ruled that the protection afforded to registered designations of origin extends beyond the origin of the product in question to incorrect or misleading references pertaining to its nature or essential qualities.

Violations of trademark law or copyright law can be met with severe penalties. Lawyers who are experienced in the field of intellectual property law can advise businesses on enforcing or fending off claims.