Tropics are the most diverse regions on the earth . A large number of population live in this region where the weather varies throughout the year ( from scorching summer to chilly winter).This changing seasons induce the outbreaks of some fetal diseases known as tropical diseases which is unique only to the tropical areas.
Malaria, Tuberculosis & AIDS are the major ones .Lack of sanitation, personal hygiene, proper education and most importantly poverty helps to spread these diseases very quickly among a large number of population.
Apart from these major ones World Health Organization (WHO) has listed out about 17 Neglected Tropical Diseases(NTDs) like Chagas disease, Rabies, Dengue, Chikungunya, Leprosy, Buruli Ulcer etc. which have already proved to be a major risk to the public health.
To treat these severe diseases a special branch of medicine has emerged which is known as Tropical medicine. This is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine which includes neurology, nephrology, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology etc.
Now most of the researchers are working in molecular level to clearly understand the tropical diseases. Various ancient herbal medicines are already used for their beneficial role. A large number of medicinal products derived from neem, turmeric, tulsi, cinchona etc. becoming popular in market. For example to treat malaria quinine, chloroquinine, nefloquinine etc. are effective medicines.
AIDS treatment is one of the most focusing areas in medical science. Current researchers are trying to develop effective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against HIV virus. But this research work is still in progress.
Polio vaccine is a powerful weapon against poliomyelitis. Recently some countries (like India) in tropical region got success to be a polio-free nation. So vaccines & immunization is definitely a boon for medical science.
Tropical Diseases are responsible for millions of death, especially in the Tropical regions of the World and one-sixth of the world population is infected with Neglected Tropical Diseases and additional two billion are at risk. Apart from the tropical region, the impact of tropical diseases on public health is worldwide. The world market for infectious disease diagnostics is increasing constantly. In 2015, the world market was of $16,805 but it has reached to $19,177 in 2018. Further it is estimated that it will hike up to $20,942 by 2020. Approximately half of the world population is under the risk of being exposed to infection with Tropical Diseases causing Micro-organisms.
Some NTD community collaborated to host the recent 2017 NTD Summit celebrating the 5th year since the signing of the London Declaration.
According to one of the most renowned journal, It is possible that nearly half of the current NTDs could be eliminated, eradicated or show significant improvement in public health within the decade.
Some Initiative taken:
1. WHO roadmap 2020
2. London Declaration for elimination of Neglected Tropical
3. Sustainable Development Goals by WHO in
For more information on tropical medicine one can attend ” 6th International Conference on Tropical Medicine, Neglected Infectious Tropical Diseases and Public Health” which is going to be held on 10-Dec-2018 to 11-Dec-2018 in Abu Dhabi, UAE