Since 2016, a collision of views has erupted quietly. Is the superconducting carrier individual electron or Cooper pair? This seems to have been answered by the BCS theory that appeared in 1957. The BCS theory suggests that the superconducting carrier is the Cooper pair.

However, since 2008, more and more academic reports have come to the conclusion that it conflicts with BCS theory. Only new ideas emerged in 2016: A cooper pair is the full band electrons belong to the band theory; the carriers are independent of each other in superconductors or conductors.

The new view uses the most fundamental principle of quantum mechanics: As long as no transition, the exchanges of energy won’t happen.

Specifically, the collisions of free electrons with lattices do not exchange energy as long as no electron transition occurred. The transition conditions are determined by the intrinsic properties of the material, i.e., the band distribution determines the transition conditions. The principle of BCS theory leads to energy gap by phonon interaction. In the new view, the phonon energy gap is only one of the effects on the band distribution.

No free electrons into non-free electrons, is the superconducting condition. What is interesting is that the exchange is often “give and take”, so the above process can be roughly described as: No transformation between free electrons and non-free electrons, that is, the condition of superconducting.

More importantly, the technical scheme of using one or more individual electrons as superconducting carriers is unprecedented technological innovation. This patent application is already on the way. Any superconductor that has been exposed to individual electrons carrier is within the scope of patent protection.

The applicant who holds the patent is the same person as who proposes the innovation theory. From Beijing, China. His name is Xiang Wu, in English name habits.

Xiang Wu asked Josephson: “Do you agree that the junction working on one by one single-electron is not name ‘Josephson junction’?” Josephson did not reply.

Media contact
Company Name: Xiang Wu
Contact Person: Xiang Wu
Address: Huilongguan town, Changping District, Beijing, China